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Government Of Assam Department of Agriculture & Horticulture Directorate of Horticulture & Food Processing

Weather Forecast

Weather and Climate are two important entity of natural environment which directly or indirectly affects many of our activities.

Difference between Weather and Climate:-

Weather is the conditions of atmosphere over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over relatively long periods of time. Weather consists of the short-term (minutes to months) changes in the atmosphere like in terms of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, brightness, visibility, wind, atmospheric pressure etc.,  

Climate, on the other hand is the description of the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area like averages of precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost, and hail storms, and other measures of the weather that occur over a long period in a particular place.

Importance of Weather and Climate in Agriculture and Horticulture:-

Knowledge of Agro meteorology which deals with Weather and Climate is very essential in Agriculture and Horticulture.  Agro meteorological Data helps farmers to make suitable planning of the farm and take decision on various farm operation. Weather forecasting plays a vital role for farmers because of following reasons:- . 

  1. It helps for suitable planning of farm.
  2. It helps to take decision as to undertake or withheld of sowing operation.     
  3.   It helps in farm operation such as :
  4. To irrigate the crop or not
  5. When to apply fertilizer or not.
  6. Whether to start and complete harvesting or to withhold it.
  7. It also helps in to take measures to fight frost.
  8. It helps in transportation and storage of food grains.
  9. Helps in management of cultural operations like plouging, harrowing hoeing etc.
  10. It helps in measures to protect livestock.

Weather parameters with favorable influence:-

  • Weather and climate are important factors to determining the success or failure of agriculture.
  • All the agriculture operations from sowing to harvest of crops depend on the mercy of weather.
  • Climate determines suitability of a crop to a particular region while weather plays a major role in the productivity of a crop in the region.
  • The excess or shortage of elements of weather and climate exerts a negative influence on crop growth, development and final yield.
  • The effect of weather and climate is complex as elements of climate operate simultaneously in nature.
  • Due to complexity of environment in which a crop is grown, it is difficult to assign an optimum value of climatic element for maximum crop productivity.

Weather parameters with negative influence :-

  • Excessively and untimely rains.
  • Scanty rains with prolonged dry spells.
  • Heat and cold waves.
  • Dust-storms, thunderstorms and hailstorms.
  • High winds.
  • Floods. 

Weather variables having both positive and negative effects on crop productivity:-

  • Solar radiation..
  • Temperature.
  • Humidity.
  • Wind.
  • Precipitation.

Factors controlling weather and climate:-

Geographical factors influencing weather and climate are referred to as climate controls. They are:

  • Latitude.
  • Altitude.
  • Land and water bodies.
  • Mountains.
  • Topography.

The distance from the equator, either from south or north, largely creates variations in climate. Based on latitude, the climate has been classified as tropical, subtropical, temperate and polar climates. The height from mean sea level adds to variation in climate. Temperature and pressure decreases with increasing height from mean sea level. Based on altitude, the climate is described as mountainous and valley climates. Nearness to large bodies of water also causes variation in climate. The climates are referred to as continental and maritime.

Important link for Weather and Climate